Discrimination can happen during any part of the recruitment and selection process and can happen directly, indirectly, by association, by perception or by failing to make reasonable adjustments based on any of the nine protected characteristics.
Treating someone less favourably than another person because of one of one or more of the protected characteristics.
Example: A female candidate for a job with the best qualifications and experience does not get an interview, but a male candidate with fewer qualifications does.
Asking for something, or doing something, which creates a disadvantage to a group of people who are defined by one of the protected characteristics.
Example: A job has an age restriction and also asks for several years experience. This may stop more women applying than men because quite a lot of women take time out of their careers to raise a family.
Discriminating against someone because they are associated with someone else with a protected characteristic.
Example: The panel reject a candidate because they know she has a disabled child and are worried that this may affect her ability to work flexible hours.
Discriminating against someone because you think they have one of the protected characteristics, regardless of whether they do or not.
Example: A candidate is not offered a job because the selection panel think they are homosexual.
Failing to make reasonable adjustments relating to any of the protected characteristics
Example: Not giving a Braille application form to a blind candidate or not rearranging an interview which falls on a religious festival.